Background: The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, established in 1505 as the Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh was one of the oldest medical organizations in the world.
Materials and methods: Literature review of the history of great Scottish surgeons of the 18th and 19th centuries and their accomplishments.
Conclusion: Edinburgh and Scotland in the 18th and 19th centuries were renowned for their cutting-edge medicine and surgery.
Clinical significance: A history of our surgical heritage.
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