Panamerican Journal of Trauma, Critical Care & Emergency Surgery

Register      Login

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Community and Internet-driven Development of the Spanish Language Version of the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen

Keywords : Depression, Development study, Injured Trauma Survivor Screen, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Risk screen, Spanish language, Traumatic injury

Citation Information : Community and Internet-driven Development of the Spanish Language Version of the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen. Panam J Trauma Crit Care Emerg Surg 2023; 12 (3):152-161.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10030-1431

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-12-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aims and background: The goal of this study was to develop a clinically appropriate translation of the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen (ITSS) from English to Spanish that retained the original intent of each item while creating a culturally valid screening tool. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of an existing screen developed to detect risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression following injury. Participants were recruited from a local clinic (n = 8) and online via Amazon's MTurk platform (n = 100) and were asked to translate each of the nine items of the ITSS screen from English into Spanish. The most frequent translations for each item were selected for the draft screen. The draft screen was back-translated by five bilingual individuals. Only two wording changes were made to the draft screen due to the back translations. Results: The forward translation that resulted from the internet sample provided the product that was then back-translated by five predetermined bilingual individuals. Two changes were made to the end product following the back translation. Conclusion: The Injured Trauma Survivor Screen–Spanish (ITSS-S) constitutes a strong, methodical translation of a clinical screen for PTSD and depression risk. As such, it has preliminary clinical utility and readiness for further validation. Clinical significance: A Spanish-language version of the ITSS that was methodologically rigorously forward and back-translated can increase access to formalized screening and intervention for PTSD and/or depression. Future work is needed to further understand the validity and reliability of ITSS-S.

  1. Johnson K. New Census Reflects Growing US Population Diversity, with Children in the Forefront. University of New Hampshire Carsey School of Public Policy. Accessed April 11, 2023. 2023.,and%2030.5%20percent%20in%202000.
  2. Dietrich S, Hernandez E. Nearly 68 Million People Spoke a Language Other Than English at Home in 2019. US Census Bureau. Accessed April 11, 2023. 2023.
  3. Rotondo MF, Cribari C, Smith RS. Resources for optimal care of the injured patient. American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma; Vol. 6. 2014.
  4. American College of Surgeons. American College of Surgeons launches guidelines to help trauma centers screen patients for mental health disorders and substance misuse. Accessed April 13, 2023. 2023.
  5. Himmelstein J, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S, et al. Health Care Spending And Use Among Hispanic Adults With And Without Limited English Proficiency, 1999-2018. Health Aff (Millwood) 2021;40(7): 1126–1134. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.02510
  6. Kundu S, Costantini TW, Doucet JJ, et al. Who is informed of trauma informed care? Patients’ primary language and comprehensiveness of initial trauma assessment. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2023;94(1): 45–52. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000003815
  7. Morocho C, Joplin TN, Lopez K, et al. How translators affect the experience and healthcare of primary Spanish-speaking patients in the trauma department. Proceedings IMPRS 2021;4(1). DOI: 10.18060/25712
  8. Hunt JC, Chesney SA, Brasel K, et al. Six-month follow-up of the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen: clinical implications and future directions. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018;85(2):263–270. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001944
  9. Hunt JC, Herrera-Hernandez E, Brandolino A, et al. Validation of the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen: An American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional trial. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021;90(5):797–806. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000003079
  10. Hunt JC, Sapp M, Walker C, et al. Utility of the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen to predict PTSD and depression during hospital admission. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2017;82(1):93–101. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001306
  11. Regmi K, Naidoo J, Pilkington P. Understanding the processes of translation and transliteration in qualitative research. Int J Qual Methods 2010;9(1):16–26. DOI: 10.1177/160940691000900103
  12. Saldanha G, O'Brien S. Research methodologies in translation studies. Routledge; 2014.
  13. Thomas DR. A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. Am J Eval 2006;27(2):237–246. DOI: 10.1177/1098214005283748
  14. Saldaña J. The coding manual for qualitative researchers. 2021:1–440.
  15. Amazon. About Amazon Mechanical Turk (FAQs).
  16. Amazon Mechanical Turk. Introducing Premium Qualifications. August 24, 2016.
  17. Amazon. Amazon Mechanical Turk Pricing.
  18. Subject Pronouns in Spanish. Spanish Dictionary.
  19. Earring. Tureng Dictionary and Translation, Ltd.
  20. Grabb LL, McElroy OH. Merriam-Webster's Spanish-English Medical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster; 2012.
  21. Pantalla. Spanish Dictionary.
  22. Frey L, Botan CH, Kreps G. Investigating Communication. NY: Allyn & Bacon; 2000.
  23. Weathers F, Blake D, Schnurr P, Kaloupek D, Marx B, Keane T. The clinician-administered PTSD scale for DSM-5(CAPS-5). 2013. Interview available from the National Center for PTSD at www ptsd va gov. 2016;
  24. Prins A, Bovin MJ, Smolenski DJ, et al. The Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5): Development and Evaluation Within a Veteran Primary Care Sample. J Gen Intern Med 2016;31(10):1206–1211. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-016-3703-5
  25. Foa EB, McLean CP, Zang Y, et al. Psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale for DSM-5 (PDS-5). Psychol Assess 2016;28(10):1166–1171. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000258
  26. Davidson J. SPAN Addendum to DTS Manual. New York: Multi-Health System Inc.; 2002.
  27. Connor KM, Davidson JR. SPRINT: a brief global assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2001;16(5): 279–284. DOI: 10.1097/00004850-200109000-00005
  28. National Center for PTSD. PTSD Screening Instruments. US Department of Veterans Affairs. Updated December 6, 2022. Accessed April 11, 2023.
  29. Blevins CA, Weathers FW, Davis MT, et al. The posttraumatic stress disorder checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): development and initial psychometric evaluation. J Trauma Stress 2015;28(6):489–498. DOI: 10.1002/jts.22059
  30. Geier TJ, Hunt JC, Nelson LD, et al. Detecting PTSD in a traumatically injured population: The diagnostic utility of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 2019;36(2):170–178. DOI: 10.1002/da.22873
  31. Resick P, Chard K, Monson C. Cognitive processing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CPT for PTSD. Accessed April 11, 2023. 2023.
  32. Rendon MJ. The cultural adaptation of the clinician-administered PTSD Scale for Spanish-speaking Latinos with limited English proficiency in the United States. University of Miami; 2015.
  33. Martínez-Levy GA, Bermúdez-Gómez J, Merlín-García I, et al. After a disaster: validation of PTSD checklist for DSM-5 and the four- and eight-item abbreviated versions in mental health service users. Psychiatry Res 2021;305:114197. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114197
  34. Hernández-Martínez A, Martínez-Vázquez S, Rodríguez-Almagro J, et al. Validation of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire for Spanish women during the postpartum period. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):5567. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-85144-2
  35. Russo J, Katon W, Zatzick D. The development of a population-based automated screening procedure for PTSD in acutely injured hospitalized trauma survivors. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2013;35(5): 485–491. DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.04.016
  36. Brasel KJ, Deroon-Cassini T, Bradley CT. Injury severity and quality of life: whose perspective is important? J Trauma 2010;68(2):263–268. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181caa58f
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.