Panamerican Journal of Trauma, Critical Care & Emergency Surgery

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2024 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Epidemiology of Interpersonal Physical Violence in Chile: A 20-year Analysis (2003–2022)

Camila Diaz Hermosilla, Abdías Cofré-Morales, Isidora Herrera-Toro, Constanza Kahler-Casas, Paula Argandoña-Ocampos, Diego Hernández-Salazar, Ana Milena del Valle-Maureira

Keywords : Brief violence intervention, Epidemiology, Mortality, Observational study, Violence, Wounds and injuries

Citation Information : Hermosilla C D, Cofré-Morales A, Herrera-Toro I, Kahler-Casas C, Argandoña-Ocampos P, Hernández-Salazar D, del Valle-Maureira AM. Epidemiology of Interpersonal Physical Violence in Chile: A 20-year Analysis (2003–2022). Panam J Trauma Crit Care Emerg Surg 2024; 13 (1):29-37.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10030-1442

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-04-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aims and background: Interpersonal violence poses significant health and social challenges. This study examines trends in interpersonal physical violence in Chile from 2003 to 2022. Materials and methods: Observational cross-sectional study. Data obtained from the Servicio Médico Legal and Departamento de Estadísticas e Información de Salud. Variables analyzed included sex, age, region, type of aggression, and injury. Statistical analysis, using Stata 17, evaluated trends, mortality, and hospital discharge rates (HDR). Ethical committee approval was unnecessary. Results: Between 2003 and 2022, Chile recorded 75,129 hospital admissions and 14,519 deaths related to physical assaults. While HDR due to assaults (HDRA) showed a decline, a rising trend was seen post-2019. The highest HDRA rates were in the northern area of Chile. Mortality rates decreased overtime and varied by region. Men had higher hospital admissions (91.36%), HDRAs, and mortality, revealing a gender gap. Variations were also noted by age, types of aggression, and trauma. Sharp object assaults were most prevalent, but firearms and blunt objects increased. Conclusion: Findings suggest a complex landscape of interpersonal physical violence in Chile, with significant regional, gender, and age disparities. While violence incidence is decreasing, severity could be rising, reflected by lethality rates. Gender inequalities in exposure and risk of violence are evident. Changes in aggression types and injuries impact health services readiness and response. Clinical significance: This study provides information to guide effective intervention policies in Chile, considering trends, geographical differences, gender inequalities, and changes in types of aggression and injuries.


PDF Share
  1. Krug Etienne G, Dahlberg Linda L, Mercy James A, et al. World report on violence and health. World Health Organization 2002. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/42495
  2. WHO. Violence prevention alliance approach [Internet]. Who.int. [cited 2023 Sep 26]. https://www.who.int/groups/violence-prevention-alliance/approach
  3. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK). Risk factors and prediction. In: Violence and Aggression: Short-Term Management in Mental Health, Health and. Community Settings: Updated edition [Internet]. Leicester, England: British Psychological Society; 2015 [cited 2023 Sep 26]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK356346/
  4. Farrington D, Gaffney H, Ttofi M. Systematic reviews of explanatory risk factors for violence, offending, and delinquency. Aggress Violent Behav 2017;33(3):24–36. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.004
  5. Rylko-Bauer B, Farmer P. The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press; 2016. pp. 47–74.
  6. PAHO. Prevención de la violencia [Internet]. Paho.org. [cited 2023 Sep 26]. Available from: https://www.paho.org/es/temas/prevencion-violencia
  7. Vahedi L, McNelly S, Lukow N, et al. “The pandemic only gave visibility to what is invisible”: a qualitative analysis of structural violence during COVID-19 and impacts on gender-based violence in Brazil. BMC Public Health 2023;23(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12889-023-16675-8
  8. Ministerio del Interior de Chile. Estadísticas Delictuales [Internet]. Portal CEAD. [cited 2023 Sep 26]. https://cead.spd.gov.cl/estadisticas-delictuales/
  9. Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud: resumen [Internet]. 2002. Disponible en: https://www.sanidad.gob.es/ciudadanos/violencia/docs/informeOMS.pdf
  10. OMS. Clasificación Estadística Internacional de Enfermedades y Problemas Relacionados con la Salud [Internet]. 1992. Available from: https://ais.paho.org/classifications/chapters/pdf/volume1.pdf
  11. INE. Demografía y Vitales [Internet]. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile. [cited 2023 Sep 27]. https://www.ine.cl/estadisticas/sociales/demografia-y-vitales
  12. Ahmad O, Boschi-Pinto C, Lopez AD, et al. Age standardization of rates: a new WHO standard. World Health Organization 2001; https://www1.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2010/Tasas%20de%20mortalidad%20por%20edad%20estandarizadas_hoja%20de%20resumen.pdf
  13. UNICEF. La pandemia incremento la violencia contra los niños y niñas en America latina y el Caribe. [cited 2023 Oct 2]. https://www.unicef.org/lac/comunicados-prensa/la-pandemia-incremento-la-violencia-contra-los-ninos-y-ninas-en-america-latina-y-el-caribe
  14. CIPER. Violencia contra la mujer en la cuarentena denuncias bajaron 96% y llamadas de auxilio aumentaron 43%. [cited 2023 Oct 2]. https://www.ciperchile.cl/2021/03/09/violencia-contra-la-mujer-en-la-cuarentena-denuncias-bajaron-96-y-llamadas-de-auxilio-aumentaron-438/
  15. Beiter K, Danos D, Conrad E, et al. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated increases in experiences of assault violence among black men with low socioeconomic status living in Louisiana. Heliyon 2022;8(7):e09974. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09974
  16. Reidy DE, Berke DS, Gentile B, et al. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence. Pers Individ Dif 2014;68:160–164. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.04.021
  17. Violence against women prevalence estimates, 2018: global, regional and national prevalence estimates for intimate partner violence against women and global and regional prevalence estimates for non-partner sexual violence against women. Ginebra, Suiza:. World Health Organization; 2021.
  18. Pacheco FA. Evolución que ha tenido el manejo del trauma en chile. Rev Cir 2023;75(3):214–218. DOI: 10.35687/s2452-454920230031719
  19. Salvo AR. Apuntes para una Antropología de la Violencia. En: V Congreso Chileno de Antropología [Internet]. Colegio de Antropólogos de Chile A. G. 2004 [citado el 8 de octubre de 2023]. Disponible en: https://www.aacademica.org/v.congreso.chileno.de.antropologia/6
  20. Gutiérrez Lethaby VC, Muñoz F. Desigualdad económica en Chile en el contexto de la Agenda 2030: Análisis de las acciones públicas. Estud Int 2022;54(203):87–127. DOI: 10.5354/0719-3769.2022.67998
  21. Goic GA. El Sistema de Salud de Chile: una tarea pendiente. Rev méd Chile 2015;143(6):774–786. DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872015000600011
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.