Panamerican Journal of Trauma, Critical Care & Emergency Surgery

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VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2022 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Pathobiology of the Glymphatic System in the Traumatic Brain Injury: A Narrative Review

Juan Jose Beltran-Ruiz, Juan Sebastian Reyes-Bello, Claudia Marcela Restrepo-Lugo, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

Keywords : Brain trauma, Craniocerebral trauma, Glymphatic system

Citation Information : Beltran-Ruiz JJ, Reyes-Bello JS, Restrepo-Lugo CM, Moscote-Salazar LR. Pathobiology of the Glymphatic System in the Traumatic Brain Injury: A Narrative Review. Panam J Trauma Crit Care Emerg Surg 2022; 11 (2):82-87.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10030-1389

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-08-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

The glymphatic system (GS) is responsible in the brain for transporting substances toward the interstitium and then out of it; it is essential for neuronal functioning and even more so after any brain injury. It is a fragile system, its functioning is altered with age, sleep disorders, and neuronal damage as in head trauma, causing a decrease in the clearance of neurotoxic and inflammatory substances, which triggers neurodegeneration and alterations in neuro repair, despite having different mechanisms that allow the flow of nutrients and clearance of harmful substances for neuronal survival and rehabilitation. This article describes the relationship between head trauma and dysfunction of the GS, as well as the negative effects on the brain parenchyma and secondary neuroinflammation. This system is not only affected by the change in the “polarization” of the aquaporin (AQP) four channels of the astrocytes but also by the characteristics of the substances in the neuronal environment, that opt for a different transport mechanism from the GS.


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